kannada test

Posted By on January 4, 2016

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World Englishes – a way to respect other cultures while maintaining one’s

Posted By on July 26, 2014

Recently, the Rhetoric Department of Ohio University propagated the concept of ‘World Englishes’ instead of the ‘Standard English’, in one of its MOOCs on Coursera. It suggests that English is different at different parts of the world. Thus, English in India is different from English in China or Japan or Africa. Though basically it is English, yet each of these languages is unique and different from each other in vocabulary and the accent.

Effect of culture on language

The world Englishes concept is not limited only to English. It is true with all other languages because languages reflect the culture of a particular society living at a particular time. Thus, it is an important part of human culture, which is passed from person to person, generation to generation. Language is not merely a group of sounds. It reflects our traditions and culture. For ex: In Indian culture we have a word – ‘kalash’. For a person outside our culture, kalash is just a vessel of water with a coconut and leaves. But for Indians, it is a symbol of prosperity, fortune and prolificacy, and weddings and festivals are incomplete without a kalash. It is so important that tumbling of kalash is considered to be inauspicious and even a bad omen. This symbolism cannot be transferred through mere translation of words.

 

Similarly, Indian culture has no equivalent word for ‘Bread’, which the traditionalists translate to ‘Roti’, which is not even close to Bread. Thus language is an identity of a particular society, which bound by a geographical territory. When this territory expands the cultures merge together, which results in a different culture. As the culture changes, the language also changes or gets enriched. This is the reason why a particular language has different flavours depending on its geographical and political territory.

 

This change is more so with English. It is surprising that a language which doesn’t have its own script has developed so much. Globalization has brought English in contact with different cultures. Instead of being closed and being rigid, English embraces the culture with open hands taking in the words from every culture it comes in contact with. Thus more and more new words are getting added to the English dictionary.

Role of Accent

The other dimension to World Englishes, is Accent. English is spoken in different accents and it is difficult to standardize a particular accent for English. Efforts are continuously made to neutralize the accent in the corporate world. The accent always carries the native flavor. It is because the native language is not learnt but absorbed from the environment during the first two years of life. It will have a strong impact on English which will be learnt as a second or third language.

 

Imagine reading a novel with different Englishes to suit different characters from different cultural background. How interesting it would be compared to the boring rhetoric of Standard English! It is also a way of respecting individuality and cultures around the world. This uniqueness adds variety and makes English vivid with full of life.

 

So, dear friends, welcome to the world of Englishes and use namma, guru, karma, mantra, in you new English avatar without being penitent.

Save the Innocence

Posted By on July 26, 2014

A young girl! Not even 5 years old, was sexually abused by an instructor at the school. It happened not in some corner of an unknown village but within the vicinity of our own city Bangalore.

This distressing incident reminds me the rape of a 5 year old girl at New Delhi, by a neighbour. The girl was found in blood soaked clothes, with injuries to her lips, cheeks, arms and anus area. The most shocking news was that the doctors found the pieces of bottles and candle inserted in her vagina.

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Capital Letters and Small Letters

Posted By on July 26, 2014

English is a peculiar language. It is amazing how English has become so popular through out the world in spite of not having its own script. Yes. English doesn’t have its own script and it uses Roman Script. It is like writing Hindi in Kannada letters. In addition, unlike Indian scripts, English has uppercase letters and lowercase letters. While uppercase letters are called capital letters and the lowercase letters are known as small letters. (more…)

Good Karma and Bad Karma

Posted By on July 26, 2014

Have you ever wondered why some people are poor and some are rich; some are healthy and some are sick; some are lucky, fortunate and happy while others appear to be unfortunate, unlucky and sad? The answer for all these questions lies in the Karma we have accumulated. (more…)

Helping the child adjust to school

Posted By on March 23, 2012

Every parent looks forward for the day when the child is dressed up in that cute school uniform, with tiny little shoes and a fancy snack basket in hand. Every parent is anxious whether the child adjusts with the school, whether he starts crying, whether he is punished by the teacher or bullied by other children. This anxiousness is completely normal. This very emotion in the parents protects the offspring. It is similar to the instinct in animals which protect their babies fiercely.

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School Annual Day Celebrations

Posted By on February 22, 2012

December to March is a very important period in the school academic year. It is not only the period of annual exams and results but also a popular time to conduct “School Annual Day Celebrations”. As the name suggests these are the grand events which schools conduct once in a year and they bring teachers, students and parents and even the school managements together.

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History of Counting

Posted By on December 30, 2011

HISTORY OF COUNTING

We use counting in our day to day life. We count, the number of idlies we eat, number of glasses of water we drink. We count the money to buy a chocolate in the shop. We count the number of eggs the hen laid. We count the number of books to take to school. We count the number of kilometers to reach the city. We use counting so much that we take it for granted. We forget that the method of counting we use today has to be invented. It took many centuries for counting to reach the present form.

Long, long ago people did not count the way we do.  Different people had different methods.

There was a group of people in Sri Lanka called Veddas. They were very simple people lived only on fruits and berries. They used only general terms like “a single”, “a couple”, “another one” and “many” to count. When a Vedda wanted to count coconuts, he would collect some pebbles and would keep one pebble for one coconut and then he would keep one more pebble saying another one, then another one and finally would show the pebbles and say, “so many”.

There was another group of people called Papua in New Guinea. They did not create any special words for counting at all. Whenever they wanted to count they would show their body parts.

The left hand little finger meant number 1, the left hand ring finger was number 2, the left middle finger was 3, the left pointing finger 4, the left thumb was 5, the left hand wrist was 6, left hand forearm was 7, the left hand elbow was 8. Like this they could count up to 28. When they had to bargain in the market they would show their body parts.

Some used rope to count. They would tie a knot for every ‘One’ they counted. After counting they would say so many.

The way we count is called “Abstract Counting”. First humans might have counted by making a notch on the bone or stick. So many notches as many number of sheep. Then there were people who had sheep, goats, cow etc. they used different types of counters for different animals. A round counters for counting sheep, oval for goat, triangular for cow etc.

Sumerians were the first people to use abstract counting. They used different symbols to represent  one, ten and sixty. Along with these symbols they used different symbols for different things.

Later on Phoenicians, who discovered the Alphabet, used the letters of alphabet for numbers. A represented 1, B =2, C=3, D=4, E=5, F=6, G=7, H=8, I =9, J=10, K =20, L =30, M = 40, N = 50, O=60, P=70, Q=80, R=90, S =100, T=200, U=300, V=400, W =500, X=600, Y=700,Z=800, ?= 800, ?=900

The Egyptians used special symbols for writing numbers. They could write up to 1000,000. Their symbols are:

=1 one finger

=10: A piece of rope.

=100: a coil of rope

=1000: a lotus or water lily

=10,000: a large finger

=100,000: a tadpole

=1000,000: a god called Heh

In Egyptian 5785 is

The Romans used some of the letters in their alphabet for numerals. So I = 1, V=5, X=10, L=50, C=100, D=500 and M=1000.

In Roman numerals

5945= MMMMMCMLXV

No one knows who and when the numerals we use were invented. These are called Arabic Numerals. They are:

0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9

There are called Arabic numerals because they were introduced by Arabs to Europeans. Arabs got them from India and called them, “Hindu Numerals”.

Thus Indians were the first people to use Zero. A great Indian Mathematician called Aryabhatta, used of Zero in the writing as early as 498 AD. It was called “Shoonya”. The numerals were

0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9

The use of zero made counting easier and limitless. We can count and write up to any number. One largest number is Googol. Googol = 1 followed by hundred zeros. If we needed to count beyond this we could keep adding zeros like this: 10000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000…

Thus the counting has become limitless with the use of only ten numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 8 and 9

Reference:

The History of Counting by Denise Schmandt – Besserat

PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

Posted By on October 16, 2011

Philosophy of education is a branch of philosophy that addresses philosophical question concerning the nature, aims and problems of education.

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Colonialism and Coffee

Posted By on October 16, 2011

Among food and beverages there is no one thing that has influenced the Indian society as much as “Coffee”. Though coffee originated from Middle-East British made it popular.

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About the author

......from light to light. I intend to pass on the light which was bestoved upon me by my teachers Mr. Appaji, Mr. Gundu Rao, Mrs. Meenakshi Shivarama Krishnan and Prof. Rajendra Gupta and by my friend Mr. Balachandra. I intend to pass on the beacon of hope, love, forgiveness and progress to all those who are involved with children and to all those who want to lay a firm foundation for beautiful world by creating wonderful childhood. ... Let's march from light to light